The Science Behind


Birch, S. H., and Ladd, G. W. (1997). The teacher-child relationship and children’s early school adjustment. J. Sch. Psychol. 35, 61–79.

Brown, M.S. (2021). The impact of teacher-student relationships on students’ self-reported self-control levels. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 82(2-A).

Dennie, D., Acharya, P, Greer, D., & Bryant, C. (2019). The Impact of Teacher-Student Relationships and Classroom Engagement on Student Growth Percentiles of 7th and 8th Grade Students. Psychology in the Schools, 56 (5), 765-780.

Dunbar, R.I.M, & Shultz, S. (2007) Evolution in the Social Brain. Social Cognition, 317(7), 1344-1347.

Farmer, A. (2018). The Impact of Student-Teacher Relationships, Content Knowledge, and Teaching Ability on Students with Diverse Motivation Levels. Language Teaching and Educational Research, 1(1), 13-24.

Karmiloff-Smith, A., Klima, E., Bellugi, U., Grant, J., & Baron-Cohen, S. (1995). Is There a Social Module? Language, Face Processing, and Theory of Mind in Individuals with Williams Syndrome. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 7(2), 196-208.

Mason, B. A., Hajovsky, D. B., McCune, L. A., and Turek, J. J. (2017). Conflict, closeness, and academic skills: a longitudinal examination of the teacher-student relationship. Sch. Psychol. Rev. 46, 177–189

Palma, C.G. (2021). Mitigating risks for youth in at-risk living conditions through school-based protective factors. In Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 82(12-A).

Roeser, R. W., Midgley, C., and Urdan, T. C. (1996). Perceptions of the school psychological environment and early adolescents’ psychological and behavioral functioning in school: the mediating role of goals and belonging. J. Educ. Psychol. 88, 408–422. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.88.3.408

Rosanbalm, K.D., & Murray, D.W. (2017). Caregiver Co-regulation Across Development: A Practice Brief. OPRE Brief #2017-80. Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, US. Department of Health and Human Services.

Brain Breaks/Movement

Andrade, J. (2010). What does doodling do? Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24, 100-106. DOI: 10.1002/acp.1561 

Archer, T., Kostrzewa, R.M. Physical Exercise Alleviates ADHD Symptoms: Regional Deficits and Development Trajectory. Neurotox Res 21, 195–209 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12640-011-9260-0(bit.ly/ArcherKostrzewa2012) 

Bartholomew, J. B., & Jowers, E. M. (2011). Physically active academic lessons in elementary children. Preventive Medicine, 52, S51-S54. 

Beaudoin, C.R & Johnston, P. (2011). The Impact of Purposeful Movement in Algebra Instruction. (https://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+impact+of+purposeful+movement+in+Algebra+instruction.-a0269228800(bit.ly/BeaudoinJohnston2011) 

Dibble, M.J. (2019). The Impact of Planned Purposeful Movement on Student Achievement in English Language Arts.  

Ford, Kristy N., “The Impact of Physical Movement on Academic Learning” (2016). Culminating Projects in Teacher Development. 13. 

Guszkowska M. (2004) Effects of exercise on anxiety, depression and mood. Psychiatria Polska, 38(4):611-620.  

Hartanto TA, Krafft CE, Iosif AM, Schweitzer JB. (2016). A trial-by-trial analysis reveals more intense physical activity is associated with better cognitive control performance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Child Neuropsychology, 22(5):618-26. 

Kreiser, B., Hairston, R. V. (2007). Dance of the Chromosomes: A Kinetic Learning Approach to Mitosis and Meiosis. Bioscene: Journal of College Biology Teaching, 33(1), 6-10.Available at: https://aquila.usm.edu/fac_pubs/15573(bit.ly/KreiserHairston2007) 

Nalder, M., & Northcote, M. T. (2015). The Impact of integrated movement-based activities on primary school aged students in the classroom. TEACH COLLECTION of Christian Education, 1(1), 1-11. Retrieved from https://research.avondale.edu.au/teachcollection/vol1/iss1/1 (bit.ly/NalderNorthcote2015) 

Sarver DE, Rapport MD, Kofler MJ, Raiker JS, Friedman LM. (2015) Hyperactivity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Impairing Deficit or Compensatory Behavior? J Abnorm Child Psychology, 43 (7):1219-32.  

Snyder, K., Dinkel, D., Schaffer, C., Hiveley, S., & Colpitts, A. (2017). Purposeful movement: The integration of physical activity into a mathematics unit. International Journal of Research in Education and Science (IJRES), 3 (1), 75-87.  

Breathing and Mindfulness

Brown, D. K., Barton, J. L., & Gladwell, V. F. (2013). Viewing nature scenes positively affects recovery of autonomic function following acute-mental stress.Environmental science & technology,47(11), 5562–5569. https://doi.org/10.1021/es305019p 

Chaudhuri A., Manna M., Mandal K., Pattanayak K. Is there any effect of progressive muscle relaxation exercise on anxiety and depression of the patient with coronary artery disease?International Journal of Pharma Research and Health Sciences.2020;8(5):3231–3236. doi:10.21276/ijprhs.2020.05.03. 

Gamble, K. R., Howard, J. H., Jr, & Howard, D. V. (2014). Not just scenery: viewing nature pictures improves executive attention in older adults.Experimental aging research,40(5), 513–530. https://doi.org/10.1080/0361073X.2014.956618 

Huberman, A. Stanford University School of Engineering. (2020, September 18). Andrew Huberman: How Stress affects the mind- and how to relieve it. [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bQ7B3bxGVjs&t=1371s 

Lindahl JR, Fisher NE, Cooper DJ, Rosen RK, Britton WB (2017) The varieties of contemplative experience: A mixed methods study of meditation-related challenges in Western Buddhists. PLoS ONE 12(5): e0176239. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0176239 

Ma, X., Yue, Z. Q., Gong, Z. Q., Zhang, H., Duan, N. Y., Shi, Y. T., Wei, G. X., & Li, Y. F. (2017). The Effect of Diaphragmatic Breathing on Attention, Negative Affect and Stress in Healthy Adults.Frontiers in psychology,8, 874. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00874 

Nair, P.P. & Meera, K.P. (2014). Effectiveness of Progressive Muscle Relaxation in Reducing Academic Stress of Secondary School Students of Kerala. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 19(8), 29-32. 

Nguyen, J., & Brymer, E. (2018). Nature-Based Guided Imagery as an Intervention for State Anxiety.Frontiers in psychology,9, 1858. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01858 

Pv J., Lobo S. M. Effectiveness of relaxation technique in reducing stress among nursing students.International Journal of Nursing and Health Research.2020;2(1):54–56 

van den Berg, M. M., Maas, J., Muller, R., Braun, A., Kaandorp, W., van Lien, R., van Poppel, M. N., van Mechelen, W., & van den Berg, A. E. (2015). Autonomic Nervous System Responses to Viewing Green and Built Settings: Differentiating Between Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Activity.International journal of environmental research and public health,12(12), 15860–15874. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph121215026 

Music and Rhythm

Alluri, V., Toiviainen, P., Jaaskelainen, I.P., Glerean, E., Sams, M., & Brattico, E. (2011). Large-scale brain networks emerge from dynamic processing of musical timbre, key and rhythm. NeuroImage, 59(4), 3677-3689. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.11.019 

Bernardi, L., Porta, C., & Sleight, P. (2006). Cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and respiratory changes induced by different types of music in musicians and non- musicians: The importance of silence. Heart, 92(4), 445–452. 

Campbell, D. (1996). The effects of soft background music on compliance in the classroom: A case study of some New York City special education classrooms. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 57(6A), 2432. 

Chlan, L. L. (1998). Effectiveness of a music therapy intervention on relaxation and anxiety for patients receiving ventilatory assistance. Heart Lung, 27(3), 169–176. 

Garza-Villarreal, E. A., Wilson, A. D., Vase, L., Brattico, E., Barrios, F. A., Jensen, T. S., Romero-Romo, J. I., & Vuust, P. (2014). Music reduces pain and increases functional mobility in fibromyalgia.Frontiers in psychology,5, 90. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00090 

Hilz, M. J., Stadler, P., Gryc, T., Nath, J., Habib-Romstoeck, L., Stemper, B., … Koehn, J. (2014). Music induces different cardiac autonomic arousal effects in young and older persons. Autonomic Neuroscience, 183, 83–93. 

Kiss, L., & Linnell, K. J. (2021). The effect of preferred background music on task-focus in sustained attention. Psychological Research, 85(6), 2313–2325. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-020-01400-6 

Kreutz, G., Bongard, S., Rohrmann, S.et al.(2004) Effects of Choir Singing or Listening on Secretory Immunoglobulin A, Cortisol, and Emotional State.J Behav Med27,623–635 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-004-0006-9 

Krumhansl, C. K. (1997). An exploratory study of musical emotions and psychophysiology. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 51(4), 336–352. 

Nomura, S., Yoshimura, K., & Kurosawa, Y. (2003). A pilot study on the effect of music-heart beat feedback system on human heart activity. Journal of Medical Informatics & Technologies, 22, 251–256. 

Särkämö, T., Tervaniemi, M., Laitinen, S., Numminen, A., Kurki, M., Johnson, J. K., & Rantanen, P. (2014). Cognitive, emotional, and social benefits of regular musical activities in early dementia: randomized controlled study.The Gerontologist,54(4), 634–650. https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnt100 

White, K. N. (2007). The Effects of Background Music in the Classroom on the Productivity, Motivation, and Behavior of Fourth Grade Students. Online Submission.  

School Climate

Hoy, W. K., and Hannum, J. W. (1997). Middle school climate: an empirical assessment of organizational health and student achievement. Educ. Administrat. Q. 33, 290–311. doi: 10.1177/0013161X97033003003 

Kalkan, F. & Dağlı, E. (2021). The relationships between school climate school belonging and school burnout in secondary school students. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 8(4), 59-79. https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.878682 

LaRusso, M. D., Romer, D., & Selman, R. L. (2008). Teachers as builders of respectful school climates: Implications for adolescent drug use norms and depressive symptoms in high school. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(4), 386-398. doi:10.1007/ s10964-007-9212-4 

Maxwell, S., Reynolds, K.J., Lee, E., Subasic, E., & Bromhead, D. (2017). The Impact of School Climate and School Identification on Academic Achievement: Multilevel Modeling with Student and Teacher Data. Frontiers in Psychology, 5.  

Thapa, A., Cohen, J., Guffey, S., & Higgins-D’Alessandro (2013). A review of school climate research. Review of Educational Research, 83, 357-385. doi:10.3102/0034654313483907 

Tschannen-Moran, M., Parish, J., and DiPaola, M. (2006). School climate: the interplay between interpersonal relationships and student achievement. J. Sch. Leadership 16, 386. 


Martin RE, Ochsner KN. The Neuroscience of Emotion Regulation Development: Implications for Education. Curr Opin Behav Sci. 2016 Aug;10:142-148. doi: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.06.006. PMID: 27822488; PMCID: PMC5096655. 

Heatherton TF. Neuroscience of self and self-regulation. Annu Rev Psychol. 2011;62:363-90. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.121208.131616. PMID: 21126181; PMCID: PMC3056504. 

De Neve D, Bronstein MV, Leroy A, Truyts A, Everaert J. Emotion Regulation in the Classroom: A Network Approach to Model Relations among Emotion Regulation Difficulties, Engagement to Learn, and Relationships with Peers and Teachers. J Youth Adolesc. 2023 Feb;52(2):273-286. doi: 10.1007/s10964-022-01678-2. Epub 2022 Sep 30. PMID: 36180661; PMCID: PMC9524346. 

Graziano PA, Reavis RD, Keane SP, Calkins SD. The Role of Emotion Regulation and Children’s Early Academic Success. J Sch Psychol. 2007 Feb 1;45(1):3-19. doi: 10.1016/j.jsp.2006.09.002. PMID: 21179384; PMCID: PMC3004175. 

EAB’s Student Behavior Survey Executive Brief, 2023 Voice of the Superintendent Survey Executive Brief (eab.com)  

Pallini, S., Vecchio, G.M., Baiocco, R. et al.Student–Teacher Relationships and Attention Problems in School-Aged Children: The Mediating Role of Emotion Regulation.School Mental Health 11, 309–320 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12310-018-9286-z 


Ramon Lewis, Shlomo Romi, Xing Qui, Yaacov J. Katz, Teachers’ classroom discipline and student misbehavior in Australia, China and Israel, Teaching and Teacher Education, Volume 21, Issue 6, 2005, Pages 729-741, ISSN 0742-051X,https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2005.05.008. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0742051X05000673) 

George G. Bear, Chunyan Yang, Lindsey S. Mantz, Angela B. Harris, School-wide practices associated with school climate in elementary, middle, and high schools, Teaching and Teacher Education,Volume 63, 2017, Pages 372-383, ISSN 0742-051X,https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2017.01.012. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0742051X16304723) 

Susan R. Goldman, Learning in the disciplines: a conceptual framework, Editor(s): Robert J Tierney, Fazal Rizvi, Kadriye Ercikan, International Encyclopedia of Education (Fourth Edition), Elsevier,2023, Pages 305-314, ISBN 9780128186299, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-818630-5.14042-4. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128186305140424) 

Anne Gregory, Francis Huang, Allison Rae Ward-Seidel, Evaluation of the whole school restorative practices project: One-year impact on discipline incidents, Journal of School Psychology, Volume 95, 2022, Pages 58-71, ISSN 0022-4405, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2022.09.003. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022440522000772) 

Jennifer L. Winkler, Michele E. Walsh, Madeleine de Blois, Jeannette Maré, Scott C. Carvajal, Kind discipline: Developing a conceptual model of a promising school discipline approach, Evaluation and Program Planning, Volume 62, 2017, Pages 15-24, ISSN 0149-7189, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2017.02.002. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0149718916302415) 

Charis L. Wahman, Tiffany Steele, Elizabeth A. Steed, Lisa Powers, “No Intervention, Just Straight Suspension”: Family perspectives of suspension and expulsion, Children and Youth Services Review, Volume 143, 2022, 106678, ISSN 0190-7409, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2022.106678. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0190740922003140) 

Discipline-Framework-Document (1).pdf (Framework for Effective School Discipline authored by National Association of School Psychologists). 

Welsh, R. O. (2023). Administering Discipline: An Examination of the Factors Shaping School Discipline Practices. Education and Urban Society, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1177/00131245231208170 

Arina Tarantul, Izhak Berkovich, Teachers’ emotion regulation in coping with discipline issues: Differences and similarities between primary and secondary schools, Teaching and Teacher Education, Volume 139, 2024, 104439, ISSN 0742-051X, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2023.104439. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0742051X23004274)